Less breast milk

The influence of cigarette smoking on daily breast-milk volume was measured by the dose-to-mother deuterium-dilution method in 10 smoking and 10 nonsmoking mothers. After administration of deuterium to the mother, breast milk and infant saliva were sampled over 14 d and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Nonsmoking mothers had a significantly greater breast-milk volume than did smokers [961 +/- 120 vs 693 +/- 110 g/d, mean +/- SD; t = 5.21, P less than 0.0001). Growth rates of the infants were also measured. Weight increase of infants of non-smoking mothers was 550 +/- 130 g whereas of infants of smoking mothers it was only 340 +/- 170 g (t = 3.11, P less than 0.01). These results indicate that cigarette smoking has a negative influence on breast-milk volume whereas the lower infant-growth rates of the smoking mothers suggest also that their breast-milk output was insufficient to support the energy requirements of their infants.
The volume of milk produced by mothers who smoked cigarettes (n = 11) and control subjects who did not smoke (n = 29) was compared after the delivery of their preterm infants (28 to 32 weeks gestation). Milk production was significantly less among those who smoked, with or without adjusting for age, race, parity, gravidity, weight-for-height, prior nursing experience, customary alcohol and caffeine intake, infant birth weight, and pumping frequency. Each mother maintained her milk production using an electrical breast pump and without the stimulus of her infant suckling at the breast.
Daily frequency and duration of breast pump usage were similar in the two groups. At 2 weeks postpartum, 24-hour milk volumes were 406 +/- 262 mL for mothers who smoked and 514 +/- 338 mL for control subjects. Between 2 to 4 weeks postpartum, the mean change in 24-hour milk volume (milliliters per 24 hours) of control subjects increased (+113 +/- 179 mL, P < .005), whereas milk volume of mothers who smoked cigarettes remained unchanged (-47 +/- 122 mL, P = .25). The percentage change in milk volume between 2 and 4 weeks for the combined groups was significantly related to four factors: pumping frequency, change in daily pumping frequency, day of initiation of pumping, and smoking status. Total and protein nitrogen, lactose, calcium, and phosphorous concentrations did not differ in milks from mothers who smoked cigarettes and mothers who did not smoke.
First, say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do. Health Service Food and Human Resources: Duty free cigarttes brands

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